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P1-B: Afrasian higher education cooperation: between nation branding and university marketing

Arndt Graf and Alexandra Samokhvalova:

The subproject "Afrasian Higher Education Cooperation between Nation Branding and University Marketing" by Arndt Graf and Alexandra Samokhvalova explores the interplay between economics, education policies and migration between Africa and Asia. As it has been discovered in the first phase of AFRASO, commodification of higher education and national higher education branding play a central role in this cooperation. In case of Malaysia, competitive pressure from traditional and new entrants to the higher education arena, combined with the ever increasing reliance on higher education revenues, leads the country to intensify its recruitment strategies in new target regions, such as Africa, and develop a national brand for higher education. The current research for AFRASO II will look at Malaysia’s strategic intent and actions to promote its higher education both internationally and specifically in Africa and identify the key components, which are used in branding higher education as a national system. Besides, Malaysia’s “branching out” to open campuses in several African countries such as Botswana and Lesotho will be explored to analyse the role this campuses play in higher education promotion and assess potential benefits and risks they pose in Africa. In this context, in the next two years the subproject will have the aim of extending conceptually and empirically the perspectives on higher education branding and today’s international higher education engagements between Asia and Africa.

 

Sophia Thubauville:

South-South Cooperation in Higher Education: Migration of Indian University Lecturers to Ethiopia

Since the turn of the millennium Ethiopia has brought forward a substantial expansion of its higher education institutions. Most of the today more than 30 universities have been constructed from close to scratch or through upgrading of former colleges. From this emphasis on the expansion of higher education Ethiopia expects a general development impulse and the creation of a larger middle-class. However, the explosion of higher education institutions and the brain drain leave a vacuum of expertise at Ethiopian universities for the moment. Only with the help of foreign lecturers and a decrease of the qualification of much of the local university staff a minimal curriculum can be offered. Most of the lecturers from overseas, who are in the country today, are from India. As of the high demand for Indian academics several agencies have specialized themselves on the recruitment of new lecturers for Ethiopia.

By research at Ethiopian universities, Indian recruitment agencies, and in the archives of the Ethiopian Ministry of Education, the project wants to analyze the history as well as the current trend of the migration of Indian academics to Ethiopia and by that way contribute to the research on highly skilled migration within the global south.

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P1-B: Afrasische Bildungskooperationen zwischen Nation Branding und Universitätsmarketing

Arndt Graf und Alexandra Samokhvalova:

Im Teilprojekt „Afrasische Bildungskooperation zwischen Nation Branding und Universitätsmarketing“ von Arndt Graf und Alexandra Samokhvalova geht es um die Schnittstelle von Ökonomie, Bildungspolitik und Migration zwischen Afrika und Asien. Wie in der ersten Phase von AFRASO gezeigt werden konnte, spielen Prozesse der Kommodifizierung von Bildung und Branding der Hochschulen bei dieser Kooperation eine zentrale Rolle.

In Malaysia führt der Konkurrenzdruck von traditionellen und neuen Marktteilnehmern in einem globalen Hochschulmarkt, zusammen mit der zunehmenden Abhängigkeit von der Hochschulbildung als Umsatzquelle, zu einer Verstärkung der Rekrutierungsstrategien in neuen Zielregionen wie Afrika, sowie der Entwicklung einer nationalen Marke für die Hochschulbildung.

Das aktuelle Forschungsprojekt für AFRASO II wird sich mit Malaysias strategischer Absicht und Aktionen zur Förderung ihrer Hochschulbildung sowohl international als auch gezielt in Afrika befassen und die Schlüsselkomponenten identifizieren, die beim Branding der Hochschulbildung als nationales System verwendet werden. Außerdem wird Malaysias Errichtung von Universitätscampus in mehreren afrikanischen Ländern wie Botswana und Lesotho erforscht, um zu identifizieren, welche Rolle diese Campus in Malaysias Branding der Hochschulbildung spielen und welche potenzielle Vorteile und Risiken sie in Afrika darstellen.

In diesem Zusammenhang wird das Projekt in den kommenden zwei Jahren die Perspektiven über Branding der Hochschulbildung sowie über die Vielfalt an internationalen Bildungsaktivitäten zwischen Afrika und Asien konzeptionell und empirisch vertiefen können.

 

Sophia Thubauville:

South-South Cooperation in Higher Education: Migration of Indian University Lecturers to Ethiopia

 Since the turn of the millennium Ethiopia has brought forward a substantial expansion of its higher education institutions. Most of the today more than 30 universities have been constructed from close to scratch or through upgrading of former colleges. From this emphasis on the expansion of higher education Ethiopia expects a general development impulse and the creation of a larger middle-class. However, the explosion of higher education institutions and the brain drain leave a vacuum of expertise at Ethiopian universities for the moment. Only with the help of foreign lecturers and a decrease of the qualification of much of the local university staff a minimal curriculum can be offered. Most of the lecturers from overseas, who are in the country today, are from India. As of the high demand for Indian academics several agencies have specialized themselves on the recruitment of new lecturers for Ethiopia. By research at Ethiopian universities, Indian recruitment agencies, and in the archives of the Ethiopian Ministry of Education, the project wants to analyze the history as well as the current trend of the migration of Indian academics to Ethiopia and by that way contribute to the research on highly skilled migration within the global south.

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Alexandra.Samokhvalova's picture

Student from Tanzania wins the International Malay Language Speech Competition: some good publicity for Africans in Malaysia in the end?

Alexandra.Samokhvalova's picture

“Malaysia for me is ...”(2016) - the backstage story about new AFRASO documentary

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From The Frying Pan Into The Fire? Asia’s African Options

Co-authored by Simone Claar

While we were attending the 1st AADUN-AFRASO conference from 11th to 14th March 2014 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, we took the opportunity to explore the city on the fringe of the scheduled conference programme and noticed that a variety of South African products were available on the market. This included the usual selection of South African wines but also extended to such condiments as Mama Africa’s or Ina Paarman’s condiments stocked in the local supermarket. Yet, more surprisingly, we also discovered a couple of Nando’s restaurants in some of the most prominent spots of the city: one, for example, could be found in the Times Square Mall and another bordered on Chinatown.

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African Students on Malaysia’s Market of Private Higher Education

Malaysia has developed a market for private higher education in the past few decades. Education turned into a commercial product, which is advertised by the universities’ marketing departments and offered internationally. On a hot and hazy afternoon, Sandra and I drove to Cyberjaya, a satellite town in the Klang Valley in the periphery of Kuala Lumpur, planned as the Malaysian Silicon Valley. There is the main campus of Limkokwing University, a pioneering institution that sticks out with its rather aggressive marketing strategy. As visitors, we got the impression that the whole idea behind this university is a big image campaign. The university opened up branch campuses around the world, not only in Southeast Asia but also in Africa and the Middle East.

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S2-A: Handelsnetzwerke und Migration zwischen Afrika und Asien

Übersicht: 

Handelsnetzwerke und Migration zwischen Asien und Afrika bestehen schon seit langer Zeit, sind aber durch die Öffnung Chinas und das chinesische Engagement in Afrika zunehmend im Fokus der westlichen Öffentlichkeit. Über die konkreten kulturellen und wirtschaftlichen Wechselwirkungen aus lokaler Sicht, ist jedoch bisher nur wenig bekannt. Neben makropolitischen Dynamiken beeinflusst der kulturelle Hintergrund der Beteiligten die Organisation von Handelsnetzwerken und die Entwicklung unternehmerischer Strategien. Das Vorhaben geht den Unterschieden zwischen afrikanischen und asiatischen Netzwerken nach. Wir fragen, welche Netzwerke (von Familien bis zu internationalen Unternehmen), welche Sektoren des Handels übernehmen und wie deren Entscheidungsprozesse von der Interaktion mit Angehörigen der anderen Kultur geprägt werden.
Ein Schwerpunkt unsere Forschung gruppiert sich um die Waren selbst. Obwohl Konsumgüter das Gros der afrikanischen Importe aus Asien ausmachen, werden auch Dienstleistungen wie tertiäre Bildung in dem afrikanisch / asiatischen Handelsgeflecht angeboten. Es stellt sich die Frage, in welchen Regionen sich Händler auf welche Angebote und Dienstleistungen spezialisieren. Auch ist kaum bekannt, welche Waren und Dienstleistungen neben Rohstoffen aus Afrika nach Asien gelangen und wie dieser Handel konkret auf der persönlichen Ebene stattfindet. Den Märkten folgen und folgten Menschen und Ideen. Welche Formen des Handels unterstützen Staaten und welche ideologischen und historischen Themen bestimmen die Politik dieser Länder? Welche Migrationserfahrungen machen Afrikaner/Asiaten im jeweiligen fremden Kontext und wie unterscheiden diese sich von den Erfahrungen, die zum Beispiel in Europa gemacht werden? Wie hat sich der Handel verändert und welche neuen Netzwerke haben sich gebildet? Welche Diskurse haben sich über die Aktivitäten der Asiaten in Afrika entwickelt? Wie bewertet man in Afrika einerseits die als positiv erlebten Entwicklungen im Bereich der Infrastruktur und der Güterversorgung, und andererseits die Präsenz der Fremden, die Konkurrenz für afrikanische Unternehmen darstellen und deren Fremdheit oftmals negativ belegt ist? Spielen diese Bewertungen für die Handelsnetzwerke überhaupt eine Rolle?
Die Feldforschungen werden in Westafrika (Kamerun, Mali) und im südlichen Afrika sowie in Indonesien, Malaysia, Japan und China durchgeführt. Das breite regionale Spektrum lässt einen Vergleich zwischen historisch und kulturell unterschiedlichen Regionen zu. Zusammengeführt wird diese Pluralität durch die enge Zusammenarbeit der beteiligten Wissenschaftler und die aufeinander abgestimmten Fragestellungen. Ute Röschenthaler untersucht in Kooperation mit Antoine Socpa in Douala und Yaounde, kamerunische und asiatische Netzwerke, in Bamako in Kooperation mit Birama Diakon die Netzwerke malischer und chinesischer Händler und gemeinsam mit Shigehiro Sassaki afrikanische Netzwerke in Japan. Mamadou Diawara erforscht malische Migranten in Indonesien und Rückkehrer in Bamako. Malaysische Bildungsunternehmer im südlichen Afrika werden von Sandra Manickam untersucht und Matthias Gruber untersucht die alten und neuen chinesisch/südafrikanischen Handelsnetzwerke in Südafrika und China.

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Involvierte AFRASO Mitglieder: 

AFRASO Publications

Röschenthaler, Ute and Dorothea Schulz ; 2016 ; Cultural Entrepreneurship in Africa ; Oxon / New York: Routledge

Talks and Lectures

Röschenthaler, Ute & Julia Binter ; Trade, crisis and cultural entrepreneurship in the Niger Delta and the Cross River Region ; Saturday, October 3, 2015 ; Marburg
Diawara, Mamadou ; The Time-Tested Traditionist: Intellectual Trajectory and Mediation from the Early Empires to the Present Day. Landscapes, Sources and Intellectual Projects: Politics, History and the West African Past ; Thursday, November 12, 2015 to Saturday, November 14, 2015 ; Department of African Studies and Anthropology (DASA) and Centre of West African Studies (CWAS), University of Birmingham
Ute Röschenthaler ; The History of Green Tea in Mali and Beyond ; Thursday, May 15, 2014 ; Goethe-Universität Frankfurt
Ute Röschenthaler ; The History of Green Tea in Africa ; Thursday, December 18, 2014 ; Bejing University
Diawara, Mamadou ; The Call of the ‘Bush’: Malian Migrants on their Way to Asia ; Wednesday, March 12, 2014 ; Kuala Lumpur
Diawara, Mamadou ; Seeing like scholars. Whose exile? Making a life in being at home and abroad ; Wednesday, March 25, 2015 ; Kapstadt
Ute Röschenthaler ; Commercial Networks and Cultural Brokers: Cameroonian Traders in China ; Wednesday, March 12, 2014 ; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Diawara, Mamadou ; China und Afrika, SoSe 2013 ; Goethe University Frankfurt
Röschenthaler, Ute; Haugen, Heide & Michaela Pelican ; Challenges to African entrepreneurship in Malaysia ; Thursday, July 9, 2015 ; Sorbonne, Paris
Ute Röschenthaler ; Brokers as Intermediaries in Commercial Trade Networks ; Sunday, December 14, 2014 ; Jinan University, Guangzhou
Röschenthaler, Ute ; Bewegung von Menschen und Gütern im globalen Kontext ; Wednesday, July 1, 2015 ; Hannover
Diawara, Mamadou ; Asien in Afrika, WiSe 2014/15
Diawara, Mamadou ; Asia as Horizon and Home for West Africans from the 1980s ; Saturday, August 8, 2015 ; Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study
Diawara, Mamadou ; (Dis-)connections in Histories of African Studies on the Continent and Beyond, ; Friday, July 10, 2015 ; Sorbonne, Paris

S2-D: Bildungsmigration afrikanischer Studierender nach Asien

Übersicht: 

Auf der Suche nach höherer Bildung zieht es afrikanische Studenten zunehmend in asiatische Länder. Islamische Staaten wie Malaysia gewinnen an Attraktivität, da Europa die Grenzen nach Süden schließt und die westliche Rhetorik islamfeindlich bleibt. Die Verbreitung der englischen Sprache sowie der islamischen Religion werden für Malaysia somit zu Pull-Faktoren. In Malaysia wird aber der islamische Glaube mit einer bestimmten ethnischen Gruppe verbunden und dadurch ethnisiert. Diese Ethnisierung der malaysischen Gesellschaft hat zur Folge, dass Migranten vor allem aufgrund ihrer Hautfarbe als ‘Andere’ betrachtet und ausgegrenzt werden. Auch afrikanische Studenten sind von Prozessen des ‘Othering’ betroffen und müssen entsprechende Bewältigungsstrategien entwickeln.

Diese ethnographische Studie untersucht Prozesse der Deterritorialisierung auf der Mikroebene. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf den persönlichen Erfahrungen afrikanischer Studenten aus Nigeria und dem Sudan während ihres Studiums an malaysischen Universitäten. Im Vordergrund stehen Fragen zu Identität und Differenz, sowie die Untersuchung transnationaler religiöser Netzwerke.

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Involvierte AFRASO Mitglieder: 

AFRASO Publications

Samokhvalova, Alexandra ; 2015 ; Transformation of the Higher Education System in Malaysia: APEX Initiative and World Class University ; Samokhvalova, Alexandra ; Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia Press ; Bandar Baru Nilai
Graf, Arndt ; 2016 ; Malaysia’s niche in international higher education: Targeting Muslim-majority, Commonwealth, and less-developed countries. ; TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia ; 4(1) ; Cambridge University Press ; 5-40
Monica Lindberg-Falk & Arndt Graf ; 2016 ; Introduction to the Issue: Student Mobility within Southeast Asia. ; TRaNS: Trans-Regional and - National Studies of Southeast Asia ; 4 (1) ; Cambridge University Press ; 1-4

Talks and Lectures

Kandale, Frauke ; Strangers in Paradise: African Muslim Students in West-Malaysia ; Tuesday, March 11, 2014 ; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Graf, Arndt ; New African scholarship on Human Security in Southeast Asia ; Wednesday, August 12, 2015 to Wednesday, March 30, 2016 ; Wien
Kandale, Frauke ; Migration of Sudanese and Nigerian Students to West-Malaysia ; Saturday, September 13, 2014 ; University of Brighton
Kandale, Frauke ; Migration of African Muslim Students to West-Malaysia ; Monday, March 24, 2014 ; Keble College, Oxford
Kandale, Frauke ; Migration and Diasporas in Southeast Asia, WiSe 2014/2015 ; Goethe University Frankfurt
Arndt Graf ; Intercivilisational Dialogue Through Higher Education: The Case of Malaysia ; Wednesday, March 20, 2013 ; University of Malaya
Arndt Graf ; Higher Education in Malaysia:APEX Initiative and World Class University ; Friday, October 16, 2015 ; Frankfurt am Main

S2-D: Migration of African Students to Malaysia

Übersicht: 

African students are increasingly drawn to Asian countries while seeking higher education. As Europe is closing its borders and Western rhetoric remains islamophobic, Islamic countries like Malaysia become more attractive. The practice of Islam and English as a widely spoken language are additional pull factors. The Malaysian Islamic faith is connected to a certain ethnic group and is thus ethnicized. This ethnicization of society also results in the ‘othering’ against migrant populations. Foreign students have to cope with this situation additionally to all other factors of living abroad.

This ethnographic study observes the micro-level effects of processes of deterritorialization and contributes to the study of African-Asian transnational networks. The focus will be on the personal experiences of African students during their studies at Malaysian universities. The research project explores questions of identity and difference as well as transnational religious networks.

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Ort: 

Involvierte AFRASO Mitglieder: 

AFRASO Publications

Samokhvalova, Alexandra ; 2015 ; Transformation of the Higher Education System in Malaysia: APEX Initiative and World Class University ; Samokhvalova, Alexandra ; Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia Press ; Bandar Baru Nilai
Graf, Arndt ; 2016 ; Malaysia’s niche in international higher education: Targeting Muslim-majority, Commonwealth, and less-developed countries. ; TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia ; 4(1) ; Cambridge University Press ; 5-40
Monica Lindberg-Falk & Arndt Graf ; 2016 ; Introduction to the Issue: Student Mobility within Southeast Asia. ; TRaNS: Trans-Regional and - National Studies of Southeast Asia ; 4 (1) ; Cambridge University Press ; 1-4

Talks and Lectures

Kandale, Frauke ; Strangers in Paradise: African Muslim Students in West-Malaysia ; Tuesday, March 11, 2014 ; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Graf, Arndt ; New African scholarship on Human Security in Southeast Asia ; Wednesday, August 12, 2015 to Wednesday, March 30, 2016 ; Wien
Kandale, Frauke ; Migration of Sudanese and Nigerian Students to West-Malaysia ; Saturday, September 13, 2014 ; University of Brighton
Kandale, Frauke ; Migration of African Muslim Students to West-Malaysia ; Monday, March 24, 2014 ; Keble College, Oxford
Kandale, Frauke ; Migration and Diasporas in Southeast Asia, WiSe 2014/2015 ; Goethe University Frankfurt
Arndt Graf ; Intercivilisational Dialogue Through Higher Education: The Case of Malaysia ; Wednesday, March 20, 2013 ; University of Malaya
Arndt Graf ; Higher Education in Malaysia:APEX Initiative and World Class University ; Friday, October 16, 2015 ; Frankfurt am Main

S2-A: Trade Networks and Migration Between Africa and Asia

Übersicht: 

While the activities of Africans in Asia are often overlooked; Asian – especially Chinese – engagement in Africa has become a focal point of interest in Western public discourse. This project explores the differences between the organization of African and Asian networks. It investigates the types of networks (from family to international enterprises), the sectors of trade and mutual impacts of different cultural practices on interactions and decisions. The focus on cultural and economic repercussion of trade, as it is perceived from the local actors’ point of view, allows to study the organization of trade networks, the development of entrepreneurial strategies, as well as the establishment of migrant trader communities.

The project’s focus on anthropological methodology and epistemological interest is the basis for the comparison within the project, even though the conditions in the research countries differ.

The key research questions of the project are as follows: What kind of trade do African and Asian states support? What are the ideological and historical themes that characterize the policies of these countries? What can be found out about the experiences of migration that Africans and Asians encounters in the respective foreign cultural context? Do these experiences differ from those made migrants in Europe? To which extent have these processes modified trade and contributed to the formation of new networks? What kind of discourses have been developed about the activities of Asians in Africa and vice versa? How do Africans evaluate the infrastructural development and the provision of goods in contrast to the increasing presence of strangers? How is competition for African enterprises created and whose cultural difference is often interpreted negatively? Do these evaluations have an impact on the trade networks? How is trade organized on the level of personal interaction?

One major research focus of the project lies on trade goods in order to find answers to these questions mentioned above. Following particular items like tea not only enables the project to understand supply chains from Chinese producers over traders in import and export to the market mechanisms in West African countries like Mali. This approach also reveals insight in the long history of trade and transformation of Green Tea from a mere product to a cultural practice, which is deeply rooted in Malian society today and becomes increasingly prominent in adjacent countries. A case study in Thailand among Malians, who trade with precious stones, revealed that Africans establish networks in Asia through modifying and adapting successful models that were developed in an African context. These activities give a clear idea about “African agency” in trade. Furthermore, they reverse simplistic notions of Africa only being the receiver of processed goods and exporting raw material.

Another focus of research are the activities of Chinese traders in South Africa. Thousands of Chinese traders arrived in the last 25 years from mainland China. While first-comers benefitted from the high demand in low-priced consumer goods; market saturation and macro-economic tendencies influence and transform the Chinese trader communities nowadays. Traders who have developed a sense for the demands in South Africa, found niches or were able to diversify their businesses, do have an advantage. These activities go often hand in hand with development of social, cultural and political ties in the host countries, where a relatively stable community of Chinese does already exist or is in the making. In all cases, the research showed that successful trade often depends on highly skilled brokers, not only in the economic arena, but also as cultural intermediaries. Researching interpersonal relationships allows to paint a profoundly more complex picture than mere generalizations of Asian/African dependencies, which this project aims to do.

Research is carried out in West Africa (Cameroon, Mali) and in South Africa as well as in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Japan, and China. The broad regional choice provides opportunities for the comparison of historically and culturally divergent regions.

The research is conducted by the following team of scholars:

Ute Röschenthaler researches in close cooperation with Antoine Socpa Cameroonian and Malaysian trade networks, in cooperation with Birama Diakon the network of Malian and Chinese traders in Mali and China, and with Shigehiro Sasaki African trade networks in Japan. Mamadou Diawara explores Malian migrants in Indonesia and returnees in Bamako. Matthias Gruber researches Chinese/South African trade networks in South Africa.


Kontakt: 

Ort: 

Involvierte AFRASO Mitglieder: 

AFRASO Publications

Röschenthaler, Ute and Dorothea Schulz ; 2016 ; Cultural Entrepreneurship in Africa ; Oxon / New York: Routledge

Talks and Lectures

Röschenthaler, Ute & Julia Binter ; Trade, crisis and cultural entrepreneurship in the Niger Delta and the Cross River Region ; Saturday, October 3, 2015 ; Marburg
Diawara, Mamadou ; The Time-Tested Traditionist: Intellectual Trajectory and Mediation from the Early Empires to the Present Day. Landscapes, Sources and Intellectual Projects: Politics, History and the West African Past ; Thursday, November 12, 2015 to Saturday, November 14, 2015 ; Department of African Studies and Anthropology (DASA) and Centre of West African Studies (CWAS), University of Birmingham
Ute Röschenthaler ; The History of Green Tea in Mali and Beyond ; Thursday, May 15, 2014 ; Goethe-Universität Frankfurt
Ute Röschenthaler ; The History of Green Tea in Africa ; Thursday, December 18, 2014 ; Bejing University
Diawara, Mamadou ; The Call of the ‘Bush’: Malian Migrants on their Way to Asia ; Wednesday, March 12, 2014 ; Kuala Lumpur
Diawara, Mamadou ; Seeing like scholars. Whose exile? Making a life in being at home and abroad ; Wednesday, March 25, 2015 ; Kapstadt
Ute Röschenthaler ; Commercial Networks and Cultural Brokers: Cameroonian Traders in China ; Wednesday, March 12, 2014 ; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Diawara, Mamadou ; China und Afrika, SoSe 2013 ; Goethe University Frankfurt
Röschenthaler, Ute; Haugen, Heide & Michaela Pelican ; Challenges to African entrepreneurship in Malaysia ; Thursday, July 9, 2015 ; Sorbonne, Paris
Ute Röschenthaler ; Brokers as Intermediaries in Commercial Trade Networks ; Sunday, December 14, 2014 ; Jinan University, Guangzhou
Röschenthaler, Ute ; Bewegung von Menschen und Gütern im globalen Kontext ; Wednesday, July 1, 2015 ; Hannover
Diawara, Mamadou ; Bangkok as a "Bush". Preliminary findings on African migrants facing Asia ; Tuesday, April 1, 2014 ; Thammasat University
Diawara, Mamadou ; Asien in Afrika, WiSe 2014/15
Diawara, Mamadou ; Asia as Horizon and Home for West Africans from the 1980s ; Saturday, August 8, 2015 ; Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study
Diawara, Mamadou ; (Dis-)connections in Histories of African Studies on the Continent and Beyond, ; Friday, July 10, 2015 ; Sorbonne, Paris